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Glossary

Glossary

ABSTRACT SYNTAX TREEA structure, created by a parser, that organizes input text according to a language’s grammar.
ABSTRACTIONA class that depends on abstract methods implemented in subclasses or in implementations of an interface.
AERIAL SHELLA firework that is fired from a mortar and that explodes midflight, ejecting and igniting stars.
ALGORITHMA well-defined computational procedure that takes a set of values as input and produces a value as output.
APOGEEThe greatest height that a fired, or flying, firework achieves.
APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERACE (API)The interface, or set of calls, that a system makes publicly available.
ASSAYAn analysis, usually of a chemical mixture.
BUSINESS OBJECTAn object that models an entity or a process in a business.
CAROUSELA large, smart rack that accepts material through a door-way and stores it.
CLASS ADAPTERAn ADAPTER that works by subclassing the class to be adapted and meeting a required interface. Compare object adapter.
CLIENTAn object that uses or needs to use another object’s methods.
COMPOSITEA group of objects in which some objects may contain others, so that some objects represent groups and others represent individual items, or leaves.
CONSOLIDATION LANGUAGEA computer language, such as Java or C#, that attempts to absorb the strengths and to discard the weaknesses of its predecessors.
CONSTRUCTORIn Java, a special method whose name matches the class name, used to instantiate the class.
CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGEA language that can be described with a particular type of grammar.
CORBACommon Object Request Broker Architecture; a standard design (common architecture) for facilitating (brokering) object requests that pass between systems.
COVARIANT RETURN TYPEWhen a subclass overrides a method and declares its return type to be a subclass of the parent’s return type.
CYCLEA path in which a node, or object, appears twice.
DEEP COPYA complete copy of an object in which the new object’s attributes are complete copies of the original object’s attributes.
DESIGN PATTERNA pattern—a way to pursue an intent—that operates at about a class level.
DIRECTED GRAPHA graph in which edges have a direction: They point.
DOUBLE DISPATCHA design in which a class B object dispatches a request to a class A object, which immediately dispatches a request back to the class B object, with additional information about the class A object’s type.
DRIVERAn object that operates a computer system, such as a database, or an external device, such as a line plotter, according to a well-specified interface.
DUDA firework that does not work correctly, particularly a fire-work that is designed to explode but doesn’t.
ENCAPSULATIONA design that limits, through a specified interface, access to an object’s data and operations.
ENTERPRISE JAVABEANS (EJB)A specification of an n-tier, component-based architecture.
EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE (XML)A particular textual language that relies on tags, or markup, to contain information about the text and that specifically separates classes or types of documents from their instances.
GRAMMARA set of composition rules.
GRAPHA collection of nodes and edges.
GRAPH THEORYA mathematical conception of nodes and edges. When applied to an object model, a graph’s nodes are usually objects, and a graph’s edges are usually object references.
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)A layer of software in an application that lets a human interact with graphical depictions of buttons, menus, sliders, text areas, and other components.
GUISee graphical user interface.
HOOKA provision that a developer places in code to give other developers a chance to insert code at a specific spot in a procedure.
HOPPERA container that dispenses chemicals, usually into a machine.
IDESee integrated development environment.
IMMUTABLEUnchangeable; specifically, an object with values that cannot change.
IMPLEMENTATIONThe code statements that make up the bodies of a class’s methods.
INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT (IDE)A software tool collection that combines support for code editing and debugging with other tools for creating new software.
INTERFACEThe collection of methods and fields that a class permits objects of other classes to access. Also, a Java interface that defines the methods that an implementing class must provide.
INTERPRETERAn object composed from a composition hierarchy in which each class represents a composition rule that determines how the class implements, or “interprets,” an operation that occurs throughout the hierarchy.
JAVA DEVELOPMENT KIT (JDK)A collection of software that includes the Java class libraries, a compiler, and other supporting tools; usually refers specifically to kits at java.sun.com.
JDBCAn application programming interface for executing SQL statements. JDBC is a trademarked name, not an acronym.
JDKSee Java Development Kit.
JUNITA testing framework, written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck, that lets you implement automated regression tests in Java. Available at www.junit.org.
KITA class with creation methods that return instances of a family of objects. See Chapter 17, ABSTRACT FACTORY.
LAW OF DEMETERAn object-oriented design principle that maintains that an object’s method should send messages only to argument objects, the object itself, or the object’s attributes.
LAYERA group of classes with similar responsibilities, often collected in a single class library, and usually with well-defined dependencies on other layers.
LAZY-INITIALIZETo instantiate an object when it is first needed.
LEAFAn individual item within a composite.
LISKOV SUBSTITUTION PRINCIPLE (LSP)An object-oriented design principle that maintains that an instance of a class should function as an instance of its superclass.
LOCKAn exclusive resource that represents possession of the object by a thread.
LOOSE COUPLINGA comparatively small and well-defined amount of responsibility that interacting objects bear to each other.
MARKER INTERFACEAn interface that declares no fields or methods, whose mere presence indicates something. For example, Cloneable is a marker interface that promises that its implementers will support the clone() method defined in Object.
METHODAn implementation of an operation.
MODEL/VIEW/CONTROLLER (MVC)A design that separates an interesting object, the model, from user interface elements that portray it: the view and the controller.
MOLEA number—Avogadro’s number—defined as the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon 12. The beauty of this number is that it lets you apply chemical equations while working with measurable quantities of chemical batches. If you know that the molecular weight of a chemical is mw, mw grams of the chemical will contain one mole of the chemical.
MORTARA tube from which an aerial shell is fired.
MUTEXAn object shared by threads that contend for control of the object’s lock. The word mutex is a contraction of the words mutual exclusion.
N-TIERA type of system that assigns layers of responsibility to objects running on different computers.
OBJECT ADAPTERAn ADAPTER that works by subclassing the required class and delegating to an existing class. Compare class adapter.
OOZINOZA fictional fireworks company that takes its name from the audience’s sounds at an exhibition.
OPERATIONA specification of a service that can be requested from an instance of a class.
PARALLEL HIERARCHYA pair of class hierarchies in which each class in one hierarchy has a corresponding class in the other hierarchy.
PARAMETRIC EQUATIONSEquations that define a group of variables, such as x and y, in terms of a standard parameter, such as t.
PARSERAn object that can recognize elements of a language and decompose their structure according to a set of rules into a form suitable for further processing.
PATHIn an object model, a series of objects such that each object in the series has a reference to the next object in the series.
PATTERNA way of doing something; a way of pursuing an intent.
PERSISTENT STORAGEStorage of information on a device, such as a disk, that retains the information even when powered down.
POLYMORPHISMThe principle that method invocation depends on both the operation invoked and the class of the invocation receiver.
POSTORDER TRAVERSALAn iteration over a tree or other composite object in which a node is returned after its descendants.
PREORDER TRAVERSALAn iteration over a tree or other composite object in which a node is returned before its descendants.
RANDOM CASEA STRiNG like thIS, wHOSE ChARActErs MAY bE uPPeR-OR LOwERcaSe, AT RANdom.
REFACTORChange code to improve its internal structure without changing its external behavior.
REFLECTIONThe ability to work with types and type members as objects.
RELATIONThe way in which objects stand with regard to each other. In an object model, the subset of all possible references from objects of one type to objects of a second type.
REMOTE METHOD INVOCATION (RMI)A Java facility that lets objects on different computers communicate.
ROMAN CANDLEA stationary tube that contains a mixture of explosive charges, sparks, and stars.
ROOTIn a tree, a distinguished node or object that has no parent.
SESSIONThe event of a user running a program, conducting transactions within the program, and exiting.
SHALLOW COPYAs opposed to deep copy. A shallow copy limits the depth to which it copies an object’s attributes, letting the new object share subordinate objects with the original.
SHELLSee aerial shell.
SIGNATUREA combination of the name of a method and the number and types of formal parameters to the method.
SQLSee Structured Query Language.
STARA compressed pellet of an explosive mixture, usually part of an aerial shell or Roman candle.
STAR PRESSA machine that molds chemical paste into fireworks stars.
STATEA combination of the current values of an object’s attributes.
STRATEGYA plan, or approach, for achieving an aim given certain input conditions.
STREAMA serial collection of bytes or characters, such as those that appear in a document.
STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL)A computer language for querying relational databases.
TIERA layer that executes on a computer.
TITLE CASEA String Like This Whose Characters Are Uppercase If They Follow Whitespace.
TREEAn object model that contains no cycles.
UMLSee Unified Modeling Language.
UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML)A notation for illustrating design ideas.
UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL)A pointer to a resource on the World Wide Web.
URLSee Uniform Resource Locator.
WIPSee work in process.
WORK IN PROCESS (WIP)Partially manufactured goods in a factory.
XMLSee Extensible Markup Language.



  

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