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Preface > Conventions Used in This Book

Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographic conventions are used in this book:


Italic

Used for file and directory names, email addresses, and URLs, as well as for new terms where they are defined.


Constant width

Used for code listings and for keywords, variables, function names, command options, parameters, and bits of HTML source where they appear in the text.


Constant width bold

Used to highlight key fragments of larger code examples, or to show the output of a piece of code.


Constant width italic

Used as a general placeholder to indicate terms that should be replaced by actual values in your own programs.

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