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2.1. HTTP

Anyone who has surfed the Web has used the Hypertext Transfer Protocol; it's the dominant protocol for fetching web pages from a server. The name is now something of a misnomer because the protocol is used for more than HTML web pages. URLs (Uniform Resource Locators, or web addresses) that start with http indicate a page that is fetched through HTTP.

HTTP was originally developed as a layer over the TCP protocol to simplify applications that exchanged HTML data. Since then, it's been adopted and standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) into the form currently in use. The current HTTP standard is at Version 1.1, which supports a number of optimizations over the 1.0 specification that had been the standard for some time.


  

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