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Encyclopedia of Networked and Virtual Or... > A Quantum Real-Time Metric for NVOs - Pg. 1341

1341 A Quantum Real-Time Metric for NVOs W.F. Lawless Paine College, USA C.R. Howard Auburn University, USA Nicole N. Kriegel Augusta State University, USA Q introduction Networked and virtual organizations (NVO's) repre- sent a new organizational paradigm, but no effective management solution exists. NVOs are supposed to be dynamically reconfigurable and more effective to manage than traditional organizations, even though the roles embedded within their structures disappear when a project is done. No matter how short-lived, a key opportunity afforded by an NVO is to extract its performance data for better control and also to measure its cultural and technological integration. To capture the essence of such a metric, we review traditional organizations. Whether a real or virtual organization, the central problem remains the lack of a theory of dynamic interdependence generated by social situations as when forming a dyad between two humans alters the cognitions and actions of both. Introduced to solve this central problem, the quantum mathematical model of dynamic social interdependence has recently gained credibility in the field and from a pilot study in the laboratory. Our ultimate aim is to develop a real-time metric to control and optimize NVO performance. BACKGRound A hard problem common to artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science is the integration of statics and dynamics in a rational theory that predicts valid out- comes for change and nonchange in real world prob- lems. Game theory was developed by Von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953) with static interdependence to model real problems. However, Bohr's criticism of its lack of dynamic interdependence led them to fret that if Bohr was correct, a rational theory of behavior was "inconceivable" (p. 148). It remains a hard problem to simulate dynamic interdependence in organizational processes such as decision making. So far, the lack of model validation leaves much to be desired (Putnik, Cunha, Sousa, & Avila, 2005), leaving current agent- based models (ABMs) in danger of being considered as "toys" (Macy, 2004). Our model of computational organizational deci- sion making derives from Bohr's (1955) belief that quantum interdependence models dynamic social interdependence. We developed and tested our model with field research on the decisions of citizen advi- sory boards (CABs), addressing legacy nuclear waste cleanup programs for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Our first investigations centered on CABs at DOE's consensus-ruled Hanford facility (Richland, Washington) and majority-ruled Savannah River Site (Aiken, South Carolina). The assumption in traditional studies of consensus that self-reports of behavior are sufficient allows DOE operations in the field to be ignored (e.g., Bradbury, Branch, & Malone, 2003). Counterintuitively, we proposed that CAB decisions affect operations at DOE facilities (Lawless, Bergman, & Feltovich, 2005). Using Bohr's ideas, we found trade-offs in uncertainties between cooperation from consensus seeking and competition from majority rule. Consensus rule dampens conflict but strengthens risk perceptions, making concrete decisions problematic, producing the gridlock found at Hanford (Lawless & Whitton, 2006). Majority rule enhances conflict within the group but, if moderated, lessens risk perceptions by promoting information processing (Dietz, Ostrom, Copyright © 2008, IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.