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Encyclopedia of Networked and Virtual Or... > Characterization and Classification ... - Pg. 175

Characterization and Classification of Cross-Organizational Business Processes Dirk Werth Institute for Information Systems at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Germany C INTRODUCTION Business processes have arisen as the primary structur- ing object for enterprises (Davenport, 1993; Hammer & Champy, 1993; Scheer, 1999b). They overcome the recent function-orientation that leaded the organization of the enterprise since the industrial age in the 18th century (Wardell, Steiger, & Meiksins, 1999). However, current economic trends foster a specialization of the enterprise's portfolio towards its core competencies (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990) and a simultaneous inten- sification of the inter-enterprise relations (Perry, 1999). Consequently, current value-generating structures consist of a set of highly specialized enterprises that intensively collaborate to create the intended products for the markets. Thus, the producing business process that is requested or ordered from an internal or external customer." Concluding, two substantial definitions seem to have been developed. On the one hand an ob- jective-oriented, which comprises processes with the intention to provide output and on the other hand an activity-oriented, which comprises all processes, that contribute to the output provision. The first interpreta- tion only includes the core processes of an enterprise (e.g., in Kaplan & Murdoch, 1991). The second one covers also support processes. THE CROSS-ORGANIZATIONAL BUSINESS PROCESS