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Chapter 4: Developing the model and the ... > Preliminary field research - Pg. 38

38 Developing Mental Toughness Once we had a sound and research-based definition of mental toughness, it became possible to develop an accurate measure. This involves a basis of theory, followed by item and reliability analysis, factor analysis, tests of convergent and divergent validity, validation in relation to external criteria, and application in research and practice. It is this process that will be briefly described in this chapter. Preliminary field research The previous research into mental toughness and related constructs clearly provided a significant volume of information on which to base a further in- vestigation into the nature and breadth of mental toughness. However, past research and existing questionnaires had been beset with inconsistencies and psychometric anomalies. Considering this, it was decided that a grounded approach should be used (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). This method focuses on the emergence of theory from unstructured data collection, rather than relying wholly on pre- existing theory with its inherent problem of restriction of data collection. It was intended that this approach would ensure that the new model of mental