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Chapter 15: Empowering Social Knowledge ... > CULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSUES REGARD... - Pg. 266

Empowering Social Knowledge with Information Technology being harmful, they should be beneficial, and not only in the short run but also in the long term. The early development of Technoethics is rooted in the cross-fertilization of sub-areas of Philosophy of Technology, Applied Ethics, and Science and Technology Studies, which focus on the inter- connection of technology and ethics embedded in society. Key scholarly contributions linking ethics, technology, and society can be found in a number of seminal works (Jonas, 1979; Jonas, 1985; Mitcham, 1997; Galván, 2003; Tavani, 2004). This resulting scholarly attention to ethical issues arising from technological transformations of work and life has helped given rise to a number of key areas (or branches) of technoethical inquiry under various research programs (i.e., computer ethics, engineering ethics, environmental Tech- noethics, biotech ethics, nanoethics, educational Technoethics, information and communication ethics, media ethics, and Internet ethics). It is important for individual values to match organizational culture because a culture of shared meaning or purpose results in actions that help the organization achieve a common or collective goal. An organization will operate more productively as a whole when key values are shared among the majority of its members. To that end, employees need to be comfortable with the behaviors en- couraged by the organization so that individual motivation and group productivity remain high. High functioning organizations are comprised of individuals whose overt behaviors are consistent with their covert values. On the most basic level, culture is observable as a set of behaviors of individuals making groups and entire society. Examples of culture at this level include the degree of formality with which employ- ees conduct themselves, the organization's dress code, and the type of technology used. Beneath the level of observable behaviors are the values that