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Chapter 2: Measuring the Impact of Socia... > A CONCEPTUAL OR THEORETICAL FRAMEWOR... - Pg. 26

Measuring the Impact of Social Media The notion of social capital has been used as a counterpoint to human and organizational capital, referred to as the Skandia model of intellectual capital (Edvinsson, 1997). Human capital is the knowledge, experience and skill set of employees while organizational capital refers to assets that are "owned" by the company such as physical inven- tory but also intangibles such as reputation and customer loyalty. Social capital then is the value created by the social relationships formed by the employees ­ the worth of the network ­ whether it be to innovate, to solve problems faster or to lessen the turnover rate (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). The authors further refine their definition of social capital as "the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relation- ships possessed by an individual or social units" (p. 243). Social capital includes both the social networks in an organization as noted by Bourdieu lead to greater efficiency and effectiveness in achieving successful outcomes (collaboration) 2 . Collaboration as an organizational goal needs to be defined again, at a finer level of granularity. For example, in the case study organization, the goal was to increase collaboration in conjunction with organizational change to create new information and knowledge sharing pathways. One of the best ways to evaluate whether or not this has occurred is to conduct a pre, during and post change social network analysis to identify and analyze changes in patterns of interaction (Anklam, 2002). A CONCEPTUAL OR THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR SOCIAL MEDIA Constant et al (1994) formulated an informa- tion sharing theory that describes the factors that support or constrain information sharing in