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Measuring the Impact of Social Media of usage and quickly became the preferred social medium for all employees. Instead of emailing, they posted updates, pooled their knowledge resources and asked for help on the community of practice shared space (on their intranet). The response time to information access requests was greatly improved (an average of six days instead of three weeks to respond) and the number of complaints decreased by 30%. This case study is used to illustrate the potential offered by social networking analysis to evalu- ate the impact that an organizational change can have on the communication, collaboration and connection patterns of employees affected by the change. For example, a training session or the introduction of new communication medium such as Twitter or a wiki may be the target and the pretest-posttest model can be used as part of the business case for using such social media in the workplace. By making visible these otherwise "invisible" patterns of interaction, it becomes possible to work with important groups to facilitate effective collaboration ...they can re-focus executive atten- tion on how organizational design decisions and leadership behaviors affect the relationships and information flows that are at the heart of how work is done... with social network analysis, managers have a means of assessing the effects of decisions on the social fabric of the organization (p. 17). Social media can be quite effectively assessed with respect to their impact and the benefits they bring to improving connecting, communicating and collaborating within organizations. The use of action research methods together with social network analysis provides a powerful toolkit for investigating what happens when a new commu- nication medium, a new technology or a change in work process is introduced. The proposed evaluation framework is thus easily extended to evaluate not only social media but any organi- zational change, from a social networking lens. DISCUSSION As Bourdieu (1986) observes, "...the existence of connections is not a natural given, or even a social given. .. it is the product of an endless effort at institution" (p. 249). The case study il- lustrates this point strongly ­ the sharing and flow of knowledge must be designed, facilitated and assessed in order to continually optimize the con- tribution of network members to an organizational goal ­ in this case, timely and accurate responses to citizen enquiries. The role of social media in such networks is ­ at a minimum ­ twofold: both as technological facilitators of many-to-many knowledge sharing and as an assessment tool and methodology to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge sharing. Cross et al (2004) note that Social network analysis provides a means with which to identify and assess the health of strategi- cally important networks within an organization. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS An excellent annotated bibliography has been compiled by Patti Anklam and Bruce Hoppe. The references are grouped into the following themes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Social and personal networks in organizations Communities of practice Networks, business and knowledge management Organizational networks research The science of networks SNA textbooks Brief readings and articles Websites and blogs. Refer to: Annotated bibliography of social net- work analysis for business. Connectedness. May 32