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Chapter 7: Organizational Culture > ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES SET FOR SOCIAL KNOW... - Pg. 119

Organizational Culture in differing organizations may label the levels in other ways but will normally include the three mentioned inside their platform of knowledge management. There are some levels of disagree- ment with hierarchal pyramids concerning knowl- edge development but a consensus exists that the progression towards knowledge acquisition will flow from data to knowledge. Knowledge creation may progress through four distinct avenues; those being from tacit to tacit, from explicit to explicit, from tacit to explicit, and from explicit to tacit. Tacit to tacit knowledge in exhibited through on-the- job train- ing, storytelling, and observation. This level of knowledge development is sometimes referred to as socialization and is displayed in the work setting as a mentor/apprentice relationship. The employee will learn a trade or task and eventually train it out to someone else. Explicit to explicit knowledge development occurs through formal working of the boardroom. In an effort to formal- ize her knowledge, she articulates or externalizes the executives' ideas into a series of procedures based on economics principles. By combining the codified procedures of several managers, she develops and documents new concepts. Finally, she presents these new concepts to a number of managers, perhaps at a conference, and they internalize the ideas and create even better ways of affecting their technique and thereby creating a competitive advantage. At this point, the process may recommence. (Girard, 2004, p.31) The spiral of knowledge will further develop knowledge by bringing the learning back again but at a higher, more developed level. New knowledge creation begins as much from ideals as it does from an individual's ideas. (Nonaka, 1991/1998) Orga- nizations that foster this mentality will essentially turn all employees into knowledge technicians.