Free Trial

Safari Books Online is a digital library providing on-demand subscription access to thousands of learning resources.

  • Create BookmarkCreate Bookmark
  • Create Note or TagCreate Note or Tag
  • PrintPrint

1.2. XML Basics

Markup technology has a long and rich history. In the 1960s, while developing an integrated document storage, editing, and publishing system at IBM, Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher, and Raymond Lorie devised a text-based markup format. It extended the concepts of generic coding (block-level tagging that was both machine-parsable and meaningful to human authors) to include formal, nested elements that defined the type and structure of the document being processed. This format was called the Generalized Markup Language (GML). GML was a success, and as it was more widely deployed, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) invited Goldfarb to join its Computer Languages for Text Processing committee to help develop a text description standard-based GML. The result was the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). In addition to the flexibility and semantic richness offered by GML, SGML incorporated concepts from other areas of information theory; perhaps most notably, inter-document link processing and a practical means to programmatically validate markup documents by ensuring that the content conformed to a specific grammar. These features (and many more) made SGML a natural and capable fit for larger organizations that needed to ensure consistency across vast repositories of documents. By the time the final ISO SGML standard was published in 1986, it was in heavy use by bodies as diverse as the Association of American Publishers, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN).

In 1990, while developing a linked information system for CERN, Tim Berners-Lee hit on the notion of creating a small, easy-to-learn subset of SGML. It would allow people who were not markup experts to easily publish interconnected research documents over a network—specifically, the Internet. The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and its sibling network technology, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) were born. Four years later, after widespread and enthusiastic adoption of HTML by academic research circles throughout the globe, Berners-Lee and others formed the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in an effort to create an open but centralized organization to lead the development of the Web.


  

You are currently reading a PREVIEW of this book.

                                                                                                                    

Get instant access to over $1 million worth of books and videos.

  

Start a Free 10-Day Trial


  
  • Safari Books Online
  • Create BookmarkCreate Bookmark
  • Create Note or TagCreate Note or Tag
  • PrintPrint