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Math & Science


261. 

Bias and Causation: Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons

Bias and Causation: Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons

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Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Publication Date: 07-SEP-2010

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A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and...

262. 

New Cambridge Statistical Tables, Second Edition

New Cambridge Statistical Tables, Second Edition

By: Dennis V. Lindley; William F. Scott

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 03-AUG-1995

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The latest edition of this very successful and authoritative set of tables still benefits from clear typesetting, which makes the figures easy to read and use. It has, however, been improved by the addition of new tables that provide Bayesian confidence limits for the binomial and Poisson distributions, and for the square of the multiple correlation coefficient, which have not been previously available. The intervals are the shortest possible, consistent with the requirement on probability. Great care has been taken to ensure that it is clear just what is being tabulated and how the values...

263. 

The Life of Isaac Newton

The Life of Isaac Newton

By: Richard S. Westfall

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 29-JUL-1994

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Isaac Newton was indisputably one of the greatest scientists in history. His achievements in mathematics and physics marked the culmination of the movement that brought modern science into being. Richard Westfall's biography captures in engaging detail both his private life and scientific career, presenting a complex picture of Newton the man, and as scientist, philosopher, theologian, alchemist and public figure, President of the Royal Society and Warden of the Royal Mint. An abridged version of his magisterial study Never at Rest, this concise biography is now published for the first...

264. 

Understanding Probability, Third Edition

Understanding Probability, Third Edition

By: Henk Tijms

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 14-JUN-2012

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Understanding Probability is a unique and stimulating approach to a first course in probability. The first part of the book demystifies probability and uses many wonderful probability applications from everyday life to help the reader develop a feel for probabilities. The second part, covering a wide range of topics, teaches clearly and simply the basics of probability. This fully revised third edition has been packed with even more exercises and examples and it includes new sections on Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte-Carlo simulation, hitting probabilities in random walks and...

265. 

Mr Tompkins in Paperback

Mr Tompkins in Paperback

By: George Gamow; Roger Penrose

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 26-MAR-2012

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Since his first appearance over sixty years ago, Mr Tompkins has become known and loved by many thousands of readers as the bank clerk whose fantastic dreams and adventures lead him into a world inside the atom. George Gamow's classic provides a delightful explanation of the central concepts in modern physics, from atomic structure to relativity, and quantum theory to fusion and fission. Roger Penrose's foreword introduces Mr Tompkins to a new generation of readers and reviews his adventures in light of recent developments in physics. ...

266. 

Dicing with Death

Dicing with Death

By: Stephen Senn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 20-NOV-2003

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If you think that statistics has nothing to say about what you do or how you could do it better, then you are either wrong or in need of a more interesting job. Stephen Senn explains here how statistics determines many decisions about medical care, from allocating resources for health, to determining which drugs to license, to cause-and-effect in relation to disease. He tackles big themes: clinical trials and the development of medicines, life tables, vaccines and their risks or lack of them, smoking and lung cancer and even the power of prayer. He entertains with puzzles and paradoxes and...

267. 

Scaling

Scaling

By: Grigory Isaakovich Barenblatt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 13-NOV-2003

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Many phenomena in nature, engineering or society when seen at an intermediate distance, in space or time, exhibit the remarkable property of self-similarity: they reproduce themselves as scales change, subject to so-called scaling laws. It's crucial to know the details of these laws, so that mathematical models can be properly formulated and analysed, and the phenomena in question can be more deeply understood. In this 2003 book, the author describes and teaches the art of discovering scaling laws, starting from dimensional analysis and physical similarity, which are here given a modern...

268. 

A Course in Financial Calculus

A Course in Financial Calculus

By: Alison Etheridge

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 15-AUG-2002

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Finance provides a dramatic example of the successful application of advanced mathematical techniques to the practical problem of pricing financial derivatives. This self-contained 2002 text is designed for first courses in financial calculus aimed at students with a good background in mathematics. Key concepts such as martingales and change of measure are introduced in the discrete time framework, allowing an accessible account of Brownian motion and stochastic calculus: proofs in the continuous-time world follow naturally. The Black-Scholes pricing formula is first derived in the...

269. 

Methods of Mathematical Physics, Third Edition

Methods of Mathematical Physics, Third Edition

By: Harold Jeffreys; Bertha Jeffreys

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 18-NOV-1999

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This well-known text and reference contains an account of those parts of mathematics that are most frequently needed in physics. As a working rule, it includes methods which have applications in at least two branches of physics. The authors have aimed at a high standard of rigour and have not accepted the often-quoted opinion that 'any argument is good enough if it is intended to be used by scientists'. At the same time, they have not attempted to achieve greater generality than is required for the physical applications: this often leads to considerable simplification of the mathematics....

270. 

Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

By: V. N. Bringi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 30-AUG-2001

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This 2001 book provides a detailed introduction to the principles of Doppler and polarimetric radar, focusing in particular on their use in the analysis of weather systems. The design features and operation of practical radar systems are highlighted throughout the book in order to illustrate important theoretical foundations. The authors begin by discussing background topics such as electromagnetic scattering, polarization, and wave propagation. They then deal in detail with the engineering aspects of pulsed Doppler polarimetric radar, including the relevant signal theory, spectral...

271. 

Geometry

Geometry

By: David A. Brannan; Matthew F. Esplen; Jeremy J. Gray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 15-APR-1999

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This is an undergraduate textbook that reveals the intricacies of geometry. The approach used is that a geometry is a space together with a set of transformations of that space (as argued by Klein in his Erlangen programme). The authors explore various geometries: affine, projective, inversive, non-Euclidean and spherical. In each case the key results are explained carefully, and the relationships between the geometries are discussed. This richly illustrated and clearly written text includes full solutions to over 200 problems, and is suitable both for undergraduate courses on geometry and...

272. 

Self-Organized Criticality

Self-Organized Criticality

By: Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 13-JAN-1998

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Self-organized criticality (SOC) is based upon the idea that complex behavior can develop spontaneously in certain multi-body systems whose dynamics vary abruptly. This book is a clear and concise introduction to the field of self-organized criticality, and contains an overview of the main research results. The author begins with an examination of what is meant by SOC, and the systems in which it can occur. He then presents and analyzes computer models to describe a number of systems, and he explains the different mathematical formalisms developed to understand SOC. The final chapter...

273. 

Markov Chains

Markov Chains

By: J. R. Norris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 28-FEB-1997

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Markov chains are central to the understanding of random processes. This is not only because they pervade the applications of random processes, but also because one can calculate explicitly many quantities of interest. This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate or MSc students with some background in basic probability theory, focuses on Markov chains and quickly develops a coherent and rigorous theory whilst showing also how actually to apply it. Both discrete-time and continuous-time chains are studied. A distinguishing feature is an introduction to more advanced topics such as...

274. 

The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors

The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors

By: John H. Davies

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 13-DEC-1997

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The composition of modern semiconductor heterostructures can be controlled precisely on the atomic scale to create low-dimensional systems. These systems have revolutionised semiconductor physics, and their impact on technology, particularly for semiconductor lasers and ultrafast transistors, is widespread and burgeoning. This book provides an introduction to the general principles that underlie low-dimensional semiconductors. As far as possible, simple physical explanations are used, with reference to examples from actual devices. The author shows how, beginning with fundamental results...

275. 

Introduction to the High Temperature Oxidation of Metals, Second Edition

Introduction to the High Temperature Oxidation of Metals, Second Edition

By: Neil Birks; Gerald H. Meier; Frederick S. Pettit

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 17-MAR-2006

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A straightforward treatment describing the oxidation processes of metals and alloys at elevated temperatures. This 2006 second edition retains the fundamental theory but incorporates advances made in understanding degradation phenomena. The first half provides an authoritative introduction to the basic principles, covering thermodynamics and mechanisms of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The latter half extends the discussion to oxidation processes in complex systems, from reactions in mixed environments to protective techniques, including coatings and atmosphere control....

276. 

Mechanics of Solid Materials

Mechanics of Solid Materials

By: Jean Lemaitre; Jean-Louis Chaboche

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 08-FEB-1990

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Elasticity, plasticity, damage mechanics and cracking are all phenomena which determine the resistance of solids to deformation and fracture. The authors of this book discuss a modern method of mathematically modelling the behaviour of macroscopic volume elements. The book is self-contained and the first three chapters review physical mechanisms at the microstructural level, thermodynamics of irreversible processes, mechanics of continuous media, and the classification of the behaviour of solids. The rest of the book is devoted to the modelling of different types of material behaviour. In...

277. 

Quantum Fields in Curved Space

Quantum Fields in Curved Space

By: N. D. Birrell; P. C. W. Davies

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 25-FEB-1982

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This book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Although the treatment is general, special emphasis is given to the Hawking black hole evaporation effect, and to particle creation processes in the early universe. The last decade has witnessed a phenomenal growth in this subject. This is the first attempt to collect and unify the vast literature that has contributed to this development. All the major technical results are presented, and the theory is developed carefully from first principles. Here is everything that students or...

278. 

Large-Scale Inference

Large-Scale Inference

By: Bradley Efron

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 05-AUG-2010

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We live in a new age for statistical inference, where modern scientific technology such as microarrays and fMRI machines routinely produce thousands and sometimes millions of parallel data sets, each with its own estimation or testing problem. Doing thousands of problems at once is more than repeated application of classical methods. Taking an empirical Bayes approach, Bradley Efron, inventor of the bootstrap, shows how information accrues across problems in a way that combines Bayesian and frequentist ideas. Estimation, testing and prediction blend in this framework, producing...

279. 

Lambda Calculus with Types

Lambda Calculus with Types

By: Henk Barendregt; Wil Dekkers; Richard Statman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 30-JUN-2013

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This handbook with exercises reveals in formalisms, hitherto mainly used for hardware and software design and verification, unexpected mathematical beauty. The lambda calculus forms a prototype universal programming language, which in its untyped version is related to Lisp, and was treated in the first author's classic The Lambda Calculus (1984). The formalism has since been extended with types and used in functional programming (Haskell, Clean) and proof assistants (Coq, Isabelle, HOL), used in designing and verifying IT products and mathematical proofs. In this book, the authors focus...

280. 

Analytic Combinatorics in Several Variables

Analytic Combinatorics in Several Variables

By: Robin Pemantle; Mark C. Wilson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Publication Date: 31-MAY-2013

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This book is the first to treat the analytic aspects of combinatorial enumeration from a multivariate perspective. Analytic combinatorics is a branch of enumeration that uses analytic techniques to estimate combinatorial quantities: generating functions are defined and their coefficients are then estimated via complex contour integrals. The multivariate case involves techniques well known in other areas of mathematics but not in combinatorics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers in enumerative combinatorics, the book contains all the necessary background, including a review of the...